March 27, 2023

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Top 6 Programming Languages to Learn for Robotics

6 min read

(Photo : Árpád Czapp on Unsplash)

Have you decided to pursue a career in robotics? Well, you made the right choice since the worldwide robotics technology industry, which was worth $62.75 billion in 2019, is anticipated to reach $189.36 billion by 2027, implying plenty of fresh options for you to express your innovative thinking.

“However, where do I begin?” is probably the first thought that comes to mind. We understand. Not only you, but probably every professional programmer who started as a novice has had similar concerns. Though deciding where to study is simple thanks to services like Codegym, the hardest part is learning. And talking of the language to choose, let’s check the top programming languages best for robotics.

Essential Characteristics of Robots

When asked, “What is a robot?” most people would describe robots as a technical breakthrough that has made our lives easier. The description may be quite relevant, but does it answer the question? Perhaps not.

Robots are remarkable human inventions. The purpose is to improve people’s lives and make discoveries in the field that humankind is incapable of achieving. This is why engineers, programmers, and scientists are always working in tandem to enhance robotic abilities.

As an aspiring robotic programmer, you must first understand the characteristics of the robots you will be working on.

Sensing. A robot can sense, smell, and hear with the help of sensors. Instead of a brain, the CPU is in charge of sending and receiving signals, and instead of nerves, sensors take up and relay information to the CPU.

Movement. The purpose of robots is to mimic human behaviors. So for a robot to be considered successful, it should be able to walk, carry, or roll on its wheels on its own.

Energy. At the moment you’re sitting and scrolling while reading this article; this activity requires energy, which comes from the wonderful meal you had this morning. Similarly, a robot needs energy, too. Instead of food, robots get their energy from batteries or solar-powered generators.

Intelligence. As an aspiring programmer, you’ve probably heard the term data science. With the advancement of concepts like data mining, robots can retrieve more quickly than humans. Robots lack brains but data science and other programming languages make up for it.

Robotics. The concept of robotics is defined by combining sensing, movement, and energy. Robotics is a phenomenal field of modern technology. Robotics is surely a fun branch to work on, it is created by humans but possesses much better advancements than we could ever anticipate.

Starting a career in robotics is a breathtaking experience, especially for people passionate about changing the world.

Best 6 Programming Languages to Learn for Robotics 

Now, let’s get to the main point of this article. Let’s look at some programming languages that can help you achieve your goal of being a robotic programmer.


If you study computer science, you are probably familiar with Java and why it is ranked first on our list. 

Java is a high-level programming language well-known for its complexity and utility. With the help of Java technology, useful APIs can be developed. The APIs can then be utilized to assist the robots in performing human-like tasks, for instance, image processing, voice changing, language translation, etc. Java Media framework and Speech API are some examples.

Java may be difficult to understand for novices due to its lengthy and intricate code. Nothing, however, is impossible. Learn Java tutorial by Сodegym, well-known for its interactive platform that offers lessons and practices to help you ace in Java.


  • It has a simple syntax.

  • It is easy to compile and debug.

  • It has a wide online community that can help with coding issues.

  • Java enterprise computing is used in building server hardware environments.

  • Since Java is an interpretative language, the code is only interpreted during runtime. This implies that the code is platform neutral and can run on any platform.

  • Java has an automatic memory management system that stores objects and a garbage collector feature that deletes them when they are not of use.


  • Java is now free. However, Oracle has stated that a paid commercial license would possibly be required in the foreseeable future.

  • Since Java doesn’t have a desktop UI, it’s challenging for developers to construct native GUI applications.


Who’d have expected that the first languages you learn in computer science would have a significant influence on robotics evolution? 

C and C++ are the most preferred skills of robotics programmers due to their ability to provide real-time performance, communicate with low-level hardware, and provide numerous hardware libraries.


  • Thanks to C++ portability, you can write codes without caring about the hardware it will run on.

  • As an object-oriented language, key principles like polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance can improve robotic performance.

  • C++ is a multi-paradigm programming language.

  • C++ gives the developer flexibility in memory management by freeing and allocating memory.


  • Since C++ uses dynamic memory allocation, it is the developer’s responsibility to manage it.

  • Following Java, C++ is another complex programming language with many complex jargons that can scare off newcomers.

  • C++, unlike other programming languages, does not contain any special operators.


Python may appear to be a simple language that has exploded in popularity due to its ease of use, yet it is one of the key languages for the Robots Operating System (ROS).


  • Python is a versatile, simple-to-use, and quick-to-develop programming language.

  • It is an open-source language, which can be installed for free.

  • It has a huge and active community.

  • Whether it is mobile development, web development, or robotics, you can find libraries for any purpose.

  • Compared to complex languages, Python has relatively less code requirement. So it is quite useful when creating prototypes.


  • Python runs slower compared to high-level languages like C++ and Java.

  • Python has threading constraints in that it can only run one thread at a time.

  • Python is not used in developing mobile applications.


In the realm of robotics, C# and.NET are must-know languages. These languages are employed in constructing the neural network system of robots.

Another reason to learn C# is that it is the primary programming language used in Microsoft Robotics Developer Studio.


  • Thanks to OOP characteristics, C# codes are easier to write, integrate, and manage.

  • C# and.NET code is written with the popular IDE, Visual studio.

  • C#, like Java, has an inbuilt garbage collector that aids with memory management.

  • Microsoft offers comprehensive documentation for C# and.NET and interactive tutorials, tips, and tools to help novices.


  • C# along with .NET libraries, difficult to learn since there are a lot of concepts you need to learn to grasp the languages fully.

  • C# and .NET performance is not on par with C++ and .NET.


MATLAB is one of the crucial languages for robotics. MATLAB, or Matrix Laboratory, is a software package that combines computation, visualization, and programming in a user-friendly environment where problems and answers are represented in standard mathematical terminology.

The control system for robots is built using MATLAB. Any faults can be easily identified and corrected during the prototyping stage.


  • Applications may be written and changed with the built-in IDE and debugged with the MATLAB debugger.

  • MATLAB is platform-independent.

  • It consists of a huge library of predefined functions.


  • Since MATLAB is an interpreted language, the execution can take some time.

  • Beginners may find MATLAB too expensive to buy


LISP, as one of the first programming languages, provides a plethora of productive characteristics that are used in programming robot movement. LISP defines the critical features of the Robot Operating System (ROS).


  • It is simple to use.

  • LISP has powerful macros.

  • It is good for functional coding

  • It has a high-performance compiler known as SBCL.


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